The Invention And Use Of The Trabuco Before Gunpowder

The Trabuco is a unique siege weapon that dates back to the middle ages. It was used in wars to crush the masonry walls of the enemy or when shooting projectiles over them into cities. The weapon’s origin is traced to China around 400 BC and later entered Europe in 600 AD. Its use was not abandoned until the discovery and outbreak of gunpowder.

The counterweight blunderbuss that appeared in Muslim and Christian countries around the Mediterranean could throw projectiles of up to 140 kilograms at high speed. Moreover, these weapons were highly effective because they could be used from a distance of up to 800 meters from the intended target according to .

The traditional Trabuco is sometimes referred to as the balancing Trabuco to distinguish itself from the traction Trabuco. The latter was created before the popular balancing Trabuco. Today in Brazil, the name Trabuco is used to refer to large caliber shotguns or revolvers especially those of old manufacture like bacamarte.

How it Works

In contrast to mangonels, catapults, and ballistae, the Trabuco doesn’t use complicated mechanism. In fact, its growing popularity during the middle ages was attributed to the simplicity of its manufacture and maintenance on Furthermore, its prominence rose because of its ability to launch heavier projectiles at a greater distance compared to similar arms in use back then.

The mechanism behind the Trabuco consists of transforming gravitational potential into kinetic energy. However, not all potential energy in the mechanism is transformed, rather, a part of it dissipates in the form of sound and heat. What’s more, the size of the Trabuco’s counterweight was directly proportional to its projectile’s velocity. As a result, larger counterweights launched stronger projectiles at

Modern physics has linked potential difference, kinetic energy, and potential gravitational to the weapon’s operation. It is presently used to explain these physical principles to students.

1. The Tensile Trabuco

The first traction Trabuco were human-operated. The beam’s short end was moved by people and required a lot of cooperation and teamwork. To date, the biggest documented trabuco as described in Wu Jing Yao de Zong’s military treatise was operated by 250 people. It hurled stones weighing 140 pounds at 80 meters. These machines were rare because they required complicated logistics to operate.

Despite the weapon’s ability to deliver four shots per minute, its use faced numerous limitations on . The biggest one was that it was hard to control the large teams of people who operated the Trabucos. It was also difficult to achieve shots of similar force. It was replaced in the eleventh century by the hybrid Trabuco.

2. The Hybrid Trabuco

When Arab merchants introduced the traction Trabuco in the Middle East, its design was refined to make it more efficient. Weight was added to the arm’s short end adding an extra reach. The hybrid Trabuco used in the thirteenth century had the capability of hurling up to 400-pound stones as evidenced in Damietta, Egypt.

Europeans first come across the hybrid Trabuco during the crusade wars. They were impressed with the idea of the weapon as well as its power and decided to implement it. They also improved the design to increase its accuracy. This was after they realized that using a constant weight and human strength would allow the Trabuco to give a greater weight.

3. The Counterweight Blunderbuss

The improvements made to the hybrid Trabuco by Europeans gave rise to the counterweight blunderbuss. These weapons hurled stones weighing over one ton for a greater distance. For ammunition, these weapons were loaded with stones, cows, horses, sand barrels, living prisoners, and human heads.

The use of Trabucos was discontinued only after the invention of gunpowder. As a result, guns and cannons were preferred for their accuracy and power.

George Soros: Wealth and Political Affiliations

George Soros is the founder and the current CEO of the Soros Fund Management LLC, an organization that deals in funding various organizations and groups of people towards achieving their dreams or ambitions. Born in Hungary, George Soros has established himself as a business magnate and a force to reckon with when it comes to investment and funding. His success in the management field has earned him a spot on the Forbes list of some of the richest and most influential businesspeople in the world. As a matter of fact, in the year 2016, Forbes estimated George Soros to be worth more than $25.2 billion.

Since its inception in the year 1969 as the Quantum Fund, the Soros Fund Management has grown drastically over the past four decades. For a company that was started with just $12 million, the Soros Fund Management currently boasts over $30 billion in assets alone.

On the Forbes list, George Soros is ranked position 29 in the global list of billionaires. In the USA, George is position 19 in the billionaire’s list. On the list of the top 400 billionaires, George Soros was ranked position 19 in the year 2016. In the same year, Forbes ranked Soros at position ten on the list of the highest-earning hedge fund managers.

George Soros has never been shy when it comes to supporting politicians. As a wealthy billionaire, Soros has always had the heart to give back to the society. If he is not busy supporting activists, then he is busy having a boardroom meeting with some of his political friends. In terms of supporting other political ambitions, George was at the forefront in funding the Clinton campaign during the 2016 US elections. Through his major funding ventures, the Federal Election Commission (FEC) estimates that George Soros dished out more than $25 million towards the Hillary Clinton campaign team. Visit Project Syndicate to learn more about George.

Though George Soros supported Hillary Clinton during the just concluded presidential election, his support came as a surprise. This is because George Soros supported Barrack Obama during the 2008 election rather than Hillary Clinton. However, his support for Barrack Obama dwindled in the year 2010. Despite this, Soros still supported Obama’s re-election. Six years later, Soros changed his allegiance and supported Hillary Clinton presidential bid against Donald Trump.

As a supporter of liberal causes, Soros has always been a critic of Donald Trump who he accuses of doing the job of ISIS which is to install fear. During the presidential election, Soros was openly against Ted Cruz and Donald Trump ideologies. In one of his columns, Soros warned the voters to “resist the siren song” played by Cruz and Trump. Soros had argued that the ideologies of these two leaders were not effective in fighting terrorism. Visit this site to know more at

After the shocking loss of Hillary Clinton, it remains to be seen what will be the next political step taken by Soros.

Wild Ark Makes Sure an Ecological Vacation Is a Perfect Fit

Ecology has been an important consideration for quite some time now. However, recently people have started to wonder if there’s more that they can do about it in their everyday life. Things like recycling are important, but most people end up feeling like there’s a lot more to ecology than tossing things into a recycling bin.

This feeling explains the sudden rise of eco-tourism. It’s a new type of vacation experience where people get a chance to explore environmentalism and help out at the same time. The connection isn’t always obvious, but it’s easy to see when one looks at an example. A company called Wild Ark offers a 7 day African Wilderness experience that’s the perfect example of eco-travel done right. The tour is led by native Shangaan trackers. During the 7 day tour people get a chance to see a wide variety of exotic animals in their natural habitat. But the most important thing is that the tours help to enrich the local economy and promote preservation efforts. Learn more:

And this is one of the real strengths of companies like Wild Ark. There’s a lot more to a properly designed eco-trip than simply flying people out to a location. Wild Ark is dedicated to making sure that trips actually benefit animals, locals, tourists and the environment as a whole. For example, in the case of the 7 day African Wilderness experience the money primarily goes to the local economy. Locals receive financial motivation to protect and preserve the natural beauty of the area. Along with this the money is able to finance projects that allow them to enrich their own lifestyle in an eco-friendly way without needing to take environmentally unfriendly shortcuts. Learn more:

Wild Ark also serves to vet the quality and legitimacy of tours. This gets around one of the problems often seen in charities. It’s often difficult to know where money goes. Wild Ark ensures that funds go to the right places and people. This is one of the main differences with eco-tourism when compared to traditional tourism. When someone goes on an eco-trip they can rest assured that the location will be better off due to their presence there. The trip helps the environment and makes sure that it’ll be available for further trips and further generations. Learn more:

Omar Boraie of Boraie Development Leads in the Urban Development of New Brunswick

Omar Boraie is the founder of the renowned real estate firm called Boraie Development. Boraie Development LLC is geographically situated in New Brunswick. This company specializes in the development of the urban property. The 72-year-old leader of the company has mastered the art of incorporating a client’s idea with his talent to generate a high-end property. From commercial to residential property, Omar has nurtured his team to develop friendly working relationships with his clients. Presently, Omar prides himself in being the owner of the New Brunswick apartments thanks to his support for urban development. According to Central Jersey Working Moms


When Omar began his career in real estate, he envisioned developing the New Brunswick property after touring Europe. Omar was working as a traveling chemistry specialist in 1972 when he traveled around Europe. The vicinity of the area was unpleasant according to him. He, therefore, yearned to develop the place into an urban area. When people vacated New Brunswick, he formulated building strategies for New Brunswick. The first project contained 21 blocks in a modern setting.

New Brunswick

Most residents from New Brunswick thought that it was impossible for him to develop a modern estate. Omar, however, proved them wrong by completing the Albany Street Tower in the 1990’s. This plaza offered the city well architecture office space. This space was in high demand. With the realization that the city required high-quality residential units, Omar thought it wise to develop a New York complex. The complex contained office space, parking garage and 121 units of spacious office space.


As Omar’s business developed, he explored different markets. He also generated several entrepreneurial networks with doctors, nurses, firefighters, business professionals, nurses, and teachers. Through his relationships, Omar was better placed to sell his ideas to the citizens of New York. He attracted a huge client base in the form of tenants. At that juncture, he developed The Aspire, a parlor for the youth. The area has several restaurants as well as entertainment parlors for nightlife.

 Boraie Development

Under the leadership of Omar Boraie, Boraie Development provides several services in the real estate market. From property development to sales and marketing, the team is committed to generating spectacular properties. This is done through providing exceptional products as well as services to clients. The forte of the management is working with the best and well known financial institutions, architects, visionary individuals as well as contractors with a clear understanding of all the projects.

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Youtuber Kim Dao Does A Bizarre Skin Treatment

Kim Dao is an Australian famous youtuber and blogger, she haves over 340K subscribers on her YouTube channel. Kim Dao does videos about traveling, tutorials, beauty, “vlogs” and hauls.

Kim Dao is very into skin care routines and treatments, that’s why in this particular video she talks about the process she had when she went to a professional dermatologist to seek a treatment for her skin. She went to an office in Gangnam, Korea named “Beautique Korea”. Before starting any treatment, the professionals had to evaluate the type of skin she has to decide on what treatment she should take. They told Kim that her skin was dry, and she should have the “Platelet-Rich Plasma” (PRP) treatment. The treatment uses your own blood which is injected back to the face to improve the moisture and skin texture. Learn more:

At the start of the treatment, they cleansed her face gently. After that, they used a professional device to remove the dead skin and then applied a numbing cream on her face. Kim Dao had to wait 30 minutes for the numbing cream to set in, while waiting she had a sample of her blood to use for her PRP procedure. She had removed the numbing cream and got started with the procedure with a device who had tiny needles to pull her skin to create space and add hyaluronic acid to her skin. That will help to keep her skin hydrated. Afterwards, they finished with a facial leaving Kim Dao’s skin beautiful. Learn more:

Does Amazon Need to Worry About Kate Hudson’s Fabletics?

Amazon has not had to be worried about the competition in the clothing e-commerce market for many years. They currently dominate that space with 20 percent of the sales, and no other retailer has been able to come close in years. In the last three years however, Kate Hudson’s Fabletics has exploded on to the scene and taken in over $250 million is sales of high-quality active-wear and workout apparel for women. If Amazon was not worried in the past, they may want to take a closer look in the rear-view mirror.


Hudson discusses openly the success of her company, and it all comes down to her unique membership platform and her use of reverse showrooming. Hudson says her athleisure brand is made from high-quality materials that couture a women’s body and has a modern look they love. To see the sales process in action, we head to the Fabletics stores at the local mall, where women are spending time window-shopping, taking a Lifestyle Quiz, getting their free membership to the store, and trying on everything they like. The difference with this retail store is they don’t rely on sales like others, so they can allow women to shop in a relaxed atmosphere.


If women aren’t pressured to buy, how does Kate Hudson’s Fabletics make $250 in such short order?


The secret to the success of Hudson’s company happens when the customers leave the retail store. When these women have the time to sit down and relax, they wind up going to the Fabletics website, and all the items they were wearing at the store in the mall is conveniently placed in their online account. Since these women know exactly how the pieces fit, they are not going to have to worry about what they are buying anymore like at Amazon. These women will add those items they tried on into their cart, add similar items, and grab new arrivals based on the size they know already flatters their body.


It seems that Kate Hudson’s Fabletics has found the perfect balance between shopping convenience and popular styles. Women who have a membership and completed the quiz get lower piece pricing, free shipping on online orders, and the assistance of a Fabletics personal shopper who makes one selection a month for customers to consider. If Amazon is not paying attention to Kate Hudson’s Fabletics, they may not be in that top spot for active-wear sales for much longer.

Identifying the Impact of Podcast Advertisement in the Growth of a Brand

With the aim of identifying the effect or the impact of podcast advertisement in the growth of a brand, Podcast One employed the services of Tom Webster, Edison Research VP to conduct and identify its impact to podcast listeners. After the research got concluded, Norman Pattiz, the founder of Podcast one announced the results of the survey.

The advertising test got conducted with five consumer brands. Additionally, five different products and services from the brands got selected. Results from the study as presented by Webster to Pattiz showed that podcast advertising contributed positively to customers intents of purchase. Additionally, it demonstrated a positive impact on brand recall. In a broader perspective, the major findings of the study indicated that:

  • A particular grocery brand awareness increased to over 60 percent as considered to 7 percent before the study.
  • Financial services products registered the greatest increase, 47 percent as compared to 37 percent for an automobile product and 24 percent of garden products.
  • Listeners likely to purchase a lawn and garden product went up to 22 percent from 16 percent in the pre-study. For automobiles products, a favorable opinion rose from 18 to 33 percent.
  • Restaurants particular campaign message recognition rose to 76 percent while for vehicles, it went up by 60 percent.

The research comprised of five brands. Some of these products have stamped their authority in the market while others sought to increase their market share by advertising. Learn more about Norman Pattiz:

The advertising campaign run for six weeks after which a post study got conducted. Results showed that podcast advertising has a positive impact on brand recognition. Additionally, it’s replacing the conventional methods of advertising.

According to PR Newswire, while Podcast One is revolutionizing the mode of publicity, the company employs a sales and marketing strategy well-crafted by its founder Norman Pattiz. Pattiz brings to this company 40 years of experience in the broadcasting industry. He prides himself with owning several media institutions including Westwood One.

Westwood One is the largest broadcasting house in America. The House manages and distributes NBC radio networks, CBS News, CNN Radio, NFL Football, and The Super Bowl among many others. Pattiz contributed to the foundation of Courtside Entertainment Group that is responsible for the production and distribution of quality programming.

Pattiz got inducted into the National Radio Hall of Fame for his contribution to the broadcasting industry. He has served in many roles in his career. Today, he resides in Beverly Hills and is married to Dr. Mary Turner.


Eduardo Sirotsky Melzer Inspires With His Management Skills

In an article on Dino, Duda Melzer is the third generation of the Sirotsky family. His grandfather is RBS Group founder, Maurício Sirotsky Sobrinho.

Currently, Duda Melzer is serving as the President of the RBS Group. It is a business that covers the states of Rio Grande does Sul and Santa Catarina too. Also, he is the founder and chairman of e.Bricks Digital, which is also part of the RBS Group. This looks into business development in the digital sector. The firm is operating in Brazil along with the United States.

At the age of 26, Eduardo Sirotsky Melzer had done his graduation. He went on to build a successful career for himself. He has a graduate degree in Business Administration. He has earned this from the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul. He has a Master of Business Administration degree. This is from the Harvard Business School. There are two other executive courses that he has completed from the Harvard Business School. This is a graduate school of Harvard University, based in the United States.

He is also serving with the Mercosul Biennial as its Director. This is a contemporary art show that is renowned internationally. It is organized in Porto Alegre by the Iberê Camargo Foundation. Others firms involved in organizing it are e.Bricks Digital as well as

Today he is 44 years old. It was in 2004 that he had joined Sirotsky. Before that Eduardo Sirotsky Melzer was working as the Director General for the National Market of this RBS Group. His career had started in North America. This was in 2002 when he worked as the Senior Financial Analyst with Delphi Corporation. In addition, he has worked with BoxTop Media as its Director General. He worked for the Family Communication Network too. Both of these companies are based in the United States.

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Role of Non-Governmental Institutions in Ensuring Justice Is Served for All

It is through upholding human rights and dignity that every person on earth, weather poor or rich can feel valued by the society they live in. Sadly, some people, organizations or countries do not observe the laid out laws that aims at protecting every human beings.

Some people are jailed without any legal representation or charged higher and unreasonable fines. Some other people are used by drug traffickers as means of transporting the illegal drugs and all other forms of injustices happening in the world.

It is because of this that Amnesty International was formed back in 1961, to represent all people, the minority, the voiceless, children and women. Since its inception. Amnesty has millions of members and it is funded by their contribution and other donors. Read more: About Lacey and Larkin- Frontera Fund

It is purely non-governmental organization that has members from over 150 countries across the world. Since amnesty is free from any interference from governments, it works effectively to represent the rights of any individual in any part of the world without preference or intimidation from any authority.

Among the people represented by Amnesty are; refugees, prisoners, women, children and other minority groups that are discriminated based on their sexuality or religious practices.

By representing these people, amnesty ensures that they have legal representation when they appear in court and although death penalty is legal in some states and countries, Amnesty still fights against it as it fights against torturing prisoners in an attempt of getting information out of them.

Amnesty works under the principle of global impartiality, justice for all, respect, global security and democracy for all. To protect children, amnesty fights against recruitment of child soldiers and advocates for free and compulsory education for all children in the world. Amnesty still works to protect all political people by ensuring that anybody involved in politics is safe to practice his rights without fear of extrajudicial killings.

There are other organizations who like amnesty have dedicated their time and resources in ensuring that human rights are upheld by all. Michael Lacey and Jim founded New Times and Village Voice Media and dedicated all their $3.75 million settlement money that resulted from their arrest case in 2007 into the organization to protect and fight for the right of all.

The two were arrested in the middle of the night from their homes for revealing the existence of a grand jury proceeding on Maricopa County Sheriff Joe Arpaio. The jury was seeking some notes from the two journalists regarding the sheriff. Learn more about Jim Larkin:

Lacey and Jim have now dedicated all the money that they got from their unwarranted arrest to protect freedom of speech and other human rights by giving voice to the voiceless through provision of funds to human rights organizations.

Why shampoo is awful for your skin and how Wen stood up against shampoo toxins

Modern civilization is starting to take notice of negligent companies that fill household products, healthcare items, beauty supplies and food….with toxins. Numerous articles have been written suggesting the use of vinegar to cleanse skin, baking soda to scrub toilets and hydrogen peroxide to disinfect. The cosmetic industry is going through a revolution as well- attempting to make foundations that aren’t toxic, yet deliver the same staying power and coverage. The no-chemical revolution has already started for hair care.

“Though sulfate-based shampoos do effectively clean the hair, they can also strip the hair of essential oils as well as irritate the skin,” cosmetic chemist and BeautyStat founder of Ron Robinson told Glamour. Aren’t there any products that do not contain sulfates? Most companies really aren’t concerned with the chemical composition of their products or the long term effects that they have. Products are infused with toxic chemicals and banned chemical variants, all in an effort to prolong shelf line and increase profits. Sulfates, along with a few other chemicals, are ingredients that have no reason to be in personal care products. A few companies have proved that they care about the health of their customers, one of these is Wen by Chaz Dean.

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Chaz Dean is the mastermind behind Wen. Hailing from the land of stars and cinema, Chaz Dean built up career experience and brand recognition by working with celebrities in Hollywood. At the time that Wen introduced their brand almost a decade ago, the haircare market had not heard of a cleansing conditioner. Wen by Chaz Dean had an enormous task, they had to do twice the work of a regular start-up. First, they had to implement a tutorial, this was a new concept, and consumer education about the mechanics behind their product had to be performed. Then came brand recognition. Wen Hair was a fresh name and unfamiliar concept to Americans- but Wen succeeded.

Cleansing conditioners are not a fad, it is a noble and concerted effort to respect the basic right of all humans to use a non-toxic chemical. Wen embraced this change from the beginning and paved the way for numerous imitators. Wen has proudly introduced fresh scents over the years to complement its product line, Winter cranberry mint being one of them.

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